Trichoderma harzianum, the bioagent

Trichoderma harzianum, the bioagent

The fungus Trichoderma harzianum is a biological control organism against a wide range of soil-borne pathogens and induce plant growth capacity. It has been shown that T. harzianum stimulated the growth of tomato plants (McGovern et al, 1992; Datnoff and Pernezny, 1998). In addition, T. harzianum is well documented as effective biological agents for R. solani control in soil (Howell, 2003). Application of small non-effective …

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Trichoderma species

Trichoderma species

1 Biology and Taxonomy Trichoderma are free-living soilborne fungi which are highly interactive in the rhizosphere and foliar environments. Trichoderma are known as imperfect fungi but now their perfect stage (Hypocrea) is known. It is a fast growing fungus in culture, and produces numerous green spores and chlamydospores. Trichoderma have created eco-friendly, safe and nonchemical disease management system which have great importance in organic …

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Fusarium wilt of tomato control

Fusarium wilt of tomato control

Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is difficult to control (Borrero et al., 2006; Elmer, 2006). Numerous strategies have been proposed to control the pathogen (Biondi et al., 2004; Ahmed, 2011). One strategy was the use of resistant tomato varieties which was only practical measure for controlling the disease in the field. Several such varieties are available today in the …

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Fusarium wilt of tomato – disease cycle and epidemiology

Fusarium wilt of tomato - disease cycle and epidemiology

F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is a soil borne pathogen which can persist many years in the soil without a host. Most infections originate from the population associated with infected tomato debris. Healthy plants can become infected by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici if the soil in which they are growing is infested with the pathogen (Mijatović et al., 2007). In addition, F. oxysporum f. …

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Fusarium wilt of tomato – The Pathogen

Fusarium wilt of tomato - The Pathogen

Fusarium is a well distributed large genus of filamentous fungi affecting plant, animal and human health as they enter the food chain (Agrios 1988; Smith et al. 1988).They produces toxins, fumonisins and trichothecenes. F. oxysporum infects a wide range of hosts that include sugarcane, garden beans, cowpeas, potatoes, banana, water melon, prickly pear, tomato, cucumber, pepper, muskmelon, tobacco, cucurbits, sweet potatoes, asparagus, vanilla, strawberry and cotton …

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Fusarium wilt of tomato

Fusarium wilt of tomato

Tomato wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is a serious disease which causes heavy crop losses worldwide. Several management options, including using plant resistant varieties, balanced nitrogen fertilizer, four year crop rotation, soil fumigation and soil solarization have been suggested to control the disease (Ioannou et al., 2000). In Palestinian agriculture, Fusarium wilt is a serious disease of greenhouses and open field crops ( Barakat …

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Agricultural land availability

Agricultural land availability

Today, 1.6 billion hectares, or 12 percent of the global land area, are used for agricultural crop production and 3.4 billion ha are used for pasture (FAO, 2011d; FAO, 2010b). This land is cultivated by a mix of farmers, ranging from pastoralists and smallholders to large commercial farms. Of the world’s 455 million farms, 387 million have less than 2 ha of farmland and …

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Accounting for environmental and social impacts through full-cost pricing of food

Accounting for environmental and social impacts through full-cost pricing of food

Making the transition to GEA will require reflecting the true costs – economic, environmental and social – of different systems in the price of products. This entails internalizing external costs associated with resource depletion and environmental degradation and setting of incentives that encourage sustainable and resilient practices that create positive externalities (e.g. payments for environmental services). Markets and trade will play an important role …

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Sustainability through nutritious diets

Sustainability through nutritious diets

In a world facing increasing competition for scarce resources (e.g. water), resource degradation (e.g. soils), increased uncertainty (e.g. climate change), volatility (e.g. fuel and food prices), conflict (e.g. land tenure) and wastage (e.g. one third of all food is lost during post-harvest handling and retailing), food and nutrition security has become an issue of efficiency, resilience to shocks and distributional equity. The problem of …

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Green jobs for smallholders

Green jobs for smallholders

Small rural households, which still constitute two-fifths of humanity, are increasingly under pressure and agricultural employment and opportunities have to be increased in a green economy. Out-migration from rural areas is expanding urban slums, with concurrent inability of these poor urban dwellers to access food and water. Support to smallholders is essential to both achieving food security and preserving natural resources. Farming, forestry and …

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No green economy without food and nutrition security

No green economy without food and nutrition security

The agricultural sector – including crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and food processing  will play a vital role in the transition to a green economy. Croplands, pastures and forests occupy 60 percent of terrestrial land, agriculture uses 70 percent of globally withdrawn freshwater, and the sector as a whole provides livelihoods for 40 percent of the world’s population. The agricultural sector depends heavily on natural …

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Water and its Contamination

Water and its Contamination

Water is a vital commodity, but is very unevenly distributed in the earth. After studying the water budget, it becomes apparent that 97.3% of the worlds water is in salty oceans, and 2.1% is located in ice cap, a bar 0.06% is found in lakes, river, and grounds (Purdom, 1980). Water is a scare resource in West Bank. Rainwater and groundwater are the only …

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